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CRDCN 2015 National Conference

Research and Public Policy:
Health, Economic and Social Perspectives

Toronto, November 5-6, 2015

Presentations

Mental Health

  • Major Depression Epidemiology in Canada - Video - Presentation
    Scott B. Patten, Psychiatry, Calgary
    Abstract: Major depressive disorder is a diagnostic category from the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (now in its 5th edition, DSM‐5). This category is an attempt to delineate a clinically useful syndromal definition of depression from more transient and often less severe emotional changes that often occur in response to life events or for other reasons. When defined in this way, major depression is a common condition (major depressive episodes afflict about 5% of the Canadian population each year) and a burdensome one. However, its epidemiology remains poorly understood. A brief predictive diagnostic interview for major depression has been included in many Canadian national surveys, starting with the 1994 National Population Health Survey. Analyses of these data have helped to clarify the basic epidemiology of this condition in Canada. The availability of repeated estimates in association with the relatively homogeneous sampling and measurement strategies now provide an opportunity to examine the epidemiology in more detail and to explore aspects of it that have been previously neglected. Recent studies employing multiple datasets with adoption of various data synthesis strategies have helped to clarify secular trends in prevalence, identify seasonal and latitude differences, as well as allowing a description of previously neglected age‐sex interactions.

  • Ethnic and gender variations in trajectories of emotional distress among new immigrants to Canada - Video - Presentation
    Il‐Ho Kim (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health)
    Abstract: This prospective cohort study examined trajectories of post‐migration emotional distress among immigrants to Canada in the initial four years of residence, focusing on ethnic and gender variations. Data for the weighted sample of 3,309 male and 3,351 female immigrants, aged 20 to 59 years, were taken from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), 2001 to 2005. The trajectories of emotional distress among new immigrants followed mainly an inverted U shaped curve with significant gender and ethnic variations. At six months of residence in Canada, 5.6% of participants showed emotional distress. However, this figure steeply increased within two years of residence in Canada, especially for female immigrants. While emotional distress decreased in the following years among male immigrants, it steadily increased among female immigrants from Africa, West and South Asia, and Latin America. During the initial four years of residence, West Asian and South Asian men were more likely to develop emotional distress than their European counterparts, whereas Chinese and East Asian women were less likely to do so. Time and ethnicity interaction tests found that African and South Asian women have a greater risk of developing emotional distress than European women.

Health

  • Impact of pharmacist delivery of influenza vaccines on uptake in Canada - Video - Presentation
    S. Buchan, L. Rosella, M. Finkelstein, D. Juurlink, S. Quach, M. Russell, N. Waite, J. Kwong (Toronto)  
    Abstract: Uptake of influenza vaccination in Canada continues to be suboptimal; accessibility may play a role. Legislation permitting the administration of influenza vaccines by pharmacists has been adopted in several provinces. This study aims to determine the impact of allowing pharmacists to provide influenza vaccines on uptake in Canada. We pooled data from the 2007‐2013 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). To determine the impact of the initiation of a provincial pharmacist influenza vaccination policy on individual‐level vaccine uptake, we used a modified Poisson regression model with normalized weights to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR), while controlling for health behaviours and sociodemographic factors. Overall, 28.3% of respondents reported receiving a seasonal influenza vaccine in the year before their participation in the CCHS. The overall adjusted PR for individuals living in provinces with a pharmacist influenza vaccination policy was 1.08. Influenza vaccination was strongly associated with age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, education, income, having a chronic medical condition, smoking, self‐reported health status, body mass index, having a regular doctor, living in an urban area and living in a province with a universal influenza vaccination policy, as well as province and season. Influenza vaccine uptake decreased over the study period, but was better maintained in provinces where pharmacists could provide influenza vaccination. The prevalence of influenza vaccination uptake appeared higher where pharmacists were allowed to administer influenza vaccines. By increasing access, allowing pharmacist vaccination may be one method to increase influenza vaccination in a population.

  • Using the CHMS to explore the health effects of shift work - Video
    A. Harris, T. Van Ingen , J. Kim, P. Demers (Ryerson)
    Abstract: The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) provides an opportunity to examine occupational and environmental exposures and their relationships to measured health outcomes or characteristics that may themselves predict future morbidity and mortality. Shift work is an occupational exposure of emerging interest, with the potential for wide‐ranging effects on population health. This submission will discuss the design and development of a Research Data Centre (RDC) project using CHMS data to test a hypothesized relationship between shift work and indicators of metabolic health, and the challenges inherent in such analyses. When pooled, the three CHMS cycles currently deployed to the RDCs represent a sample of more than 17,000 participants. However, many participants are excluded from labour force related questions due to age or employment status. Furthermore, after Cycle 2, the question about "usual shift worked" was dropped from the CHMS, leaving a pooled sample of approximately 5,970 with valid responses to usual shift worked. Of these, approximately 18%, are exposed to shift work, defined as regular night, evening or rotating shifts. Those working regular night shifts (often called graveyard) represent only 2%. Despite the attrition of the sample when subset to those eligible to respond to the "usual shift worked" question, the CHMS holds promise to address questions about the relationship between shift work and health in the Canadian population. Due to cell size concerns, cross‐relationships with common health outcomes, such as overweight/obesity (approximately 57% of measured participants in Cycle 1) may be most practicable for study.

  • Intergenerational effects of residential schooling on health: Evidence from the Aboriginal Peoples - Video - Presentation
    Piotr Wilk (Western), Martin Cooke (Waterloo)
    Abstract: The final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada in June 2015 brought much needed attention to the role of residential schooling in the ongoing disparities between Indigenous and non‐Indigenous Canadians. In addition to the stories collected by the Commission, previous academic research has provided some evidence of the effects of residential schooling on mental health and suicidality (Elias, Migone et al, 2012; Gone, 2013), and on childhood obesity (Cooke et al. 2013). However, there has been no attempt to quantitatively examine the intergenerational effects of residential school experience on other health outcomes for which First Nations, Inuit and Métis are at higher risk, including adult diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stress, as well as on health‐related behaviours such as drinking and smoking. Using the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey and a structural equation modelling (SEM) framework, we estimate the direct effects of personal residential school attendance, as well as the indirect effects of the attendance of previous generations’ attendance, on these health outcomes for off‐reserve Indigenous adults aged 30 and older. As expected, we find that there is significant clustering of residential school attendance within families. Individual and intergenerational school attendance is significantly related to several outcomes, including smoking and alcohol use. These results are potentially important for clinicians and others who work with Indigenous people, as well as for understanding the continuing impact of residential schooling.

  • Decomposing differences in the Body Mass Index distributions of Canada and the United States - Video - Presentation
    Mustafa Ornek, Paul Contoyannis, Arthur Sweetman (McMaster)
    Abstract: We analyze the body mass index (BMI) distributions of Canada and the United States. Using the 1999/2000 and the 2012 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey, and data from 1999/2002 and 2009/2012 for the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we contrast differences in the relationships between socio‐demographic variables and the BMI distributions both between and over time within each country for males and females. We compare the method proposed by Chernozhukov et al. (2013), which to our knowledge has not been applied in this literature previously, to that of Firpo, Fortin and Lemieux (2009). Both methods allow decompositions of the relationship of each variable separately, but each has particular pros and cons. The former performs better at the tails of the distribution, whereas the latter produces results that are independent on the order in which explanatory variables are employed. Consequently, this study is also an exercise to compare these two methods. Our results provide evidence that the relationships between sociodemographic variables and BMI differ at different points of the BMI distributions. Across the two countries, we find race, immigration status and household income to have statistically significant associations with BMI distributions at all quantiles, but with differing magnitudes. Within the same country, males and females differ in both countries in terms of how their BMIs are associated with educational attainment and household income at different points of the BMI distribution.

  • Canadian dietary sodium consumption by food environment - Video - Presentation
    Stephanie K. Nishi, Mahsa Jessri, Mary R. L’Abbe (Toronto) 
    Abstract: Food environment is recognized by Health Canada as a priority area for investigation due to its potential role in influencing dietary intake, where healthy eating is central to overall health and nutrition‐related chronic disease risk reduction. In particular, dietary sodium is an important health concern since the majority of Canadians consume sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Methods: A cross‐sectional analysis of sodium intake (energy adjusted) among 33,661 Canadians, >2 years, from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, based on food environment, including: location, occasion, and time. Results: By location, the highest energy‐adjusted sodium consumption was consumed at home with means ranging from 2233‐2694mg/day across all dietary reference intake (DRI) age and sex groups. This was followed by 338‐851mg/day of overall sodium consumed outside the home. Dinner (851‐1299mg/day), lunch (811‐1023mg/day), followed by breakfast (397‐551mg/day) and snack (303‐591mg/day) occasions contributed to sodium consumption in this order. When assessed on an hourly scale, sodium intake peaked around 7‐9am, 10am‐1pm, and 5‐7pm, corresponding to occasions.

  • Pediatric and adult reference intervals for chemistry, immunoassay, and hematology markers based on the CHMS - Video - Presentation
    Victoria Higgins,  Michelle Nieuwesteeg, Joshua E. Raizman, Yunqi Chen,  Suzy L. Wong,  David Blais, Khosrow Adeli (Toronto)
    Abstract: Accurately established reference intervals, partitioned by age and gender, are essential to correctly interpret laboratory results, as these factors can dramatically influence normative concentrations of analytes. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) collected comprehensive health information and blood samples from the Canadian household population. The Canadian Laboratory Initiative for Pediatric Reference Intervals (CALIPER) collaborated with Statistics Canada to access the CHMS data and develop a robust national database of pediatric, adult, and geriatric reference intervals for routine chemistry, immunoassay, and hematology markers. From 2007‐2011, health information, physical measurements, urine, and blood samples were collected from approximately 12,000 Canadians aged 3‐79 years. Blood or urine samples were used to measure 23 chemistry‐based analytes, 13 immunoassay‐based analytes, and 16 hematology markers. Specific exclusion criteria were applied to ensure only healthy individuals were used to establish reference intervals. Using CLSI C28‐A3 guidelines, age‐ and sex‐specific reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals were determined. Reference intervals were calculated for 52 biomarkers and scatterplots were created to observe the unique and dynamic changes in analyte concentrations from pediatrics to geriatrics. All analytes, except bicarbonate, required at least two age partitions, and many analytes required further gender partitioning. This robust data and subsequent analysis has allowed important insight into the dynamic biological profiles of 52 clinically important biomarkers throughout the lifespan of healthy Canadians. Age‐ and sex‐specific reference intervals established from this dataset can contribute to improved diagnostic accuracy and monitoring of pediatric, adult, and geriatric patients.

  • Could history of smoking explain the protective effect of religious attendance on all‐cause mortality? - Video - Presentation
    Philip Baiden, Esme Fuller‐Thomson, Lyndsay Howitt, (Toronto)
    Abstract: To examine the link between religious attendance and all‐cause mortality independent of well-known confounders using a nationally representative longitudinal data from Canada. Data for this study were obtained from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS). A sample of 6,635 adults who were followed from 1994/1995 to 2009 was analyzed using survival analysis. The outcome variable examined was time to death and the main independent variable was frequency of religious attendance. The study also controlled for other well‐known confounders such as demographic, socioeconomic, mental health, and health behaviour factors. Results indicate that adjusting for demographic factors, respondents who attended religious services weekly in 1994 had 23% lower risk of dying during the follow‐up period than those who never attend religious services (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.66‐0.89). However, the association between religious attendance and mortality was fully attenuated and became non‐significant after adjusting for smoking history (HR=0.92; 95% CI=0.79‐1.08). In the fully adjusted model, compared to respondents who do not smoke, the hazard ratio for respondents who currently smokes was 2.44 times greater and 1.36 times greater for those who were former smokers. Consistent with past studies, findings from this study demonstrated that those who attend religious services regularly had a lower risk of mortality independent of well‐known confounders. More importantly, our findings revealed that the protective role of weekly religious attendance on mortality is largely explained by smoking behaviour. Additional study is required to understand the mechanism by which the relationship between religious attendance and mortality is mediated by smoking behaviour.

Cancer

  • Cervical cancer screening in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit women in Quebec, Canada: A pooled cross‐sectional analysis - Video - Presentation
    Alexandra Blair, Marie‐Hélène Mayrand, Marie‐Pierre Sylvestre, Lise Gauvin, Mylène Drouin, Geetanjali D. Datta  (Montréal)
    Abstract: No published data on cervical cancer screening rates exist for Aboriginal women across Quebec. We aimed to compare screening rates across these groups. We pooled four waves of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003, 2005, 2008, 2012; weighted N=7,105,591). The outcome, non‐recent screening (NRS), was defined as reported screening 3 or more years prior to the survey. Women who reported First Nations, Métis, or Inuit ancestry, or Cree as their mother tongue (weighted N=2,529,590) were compared to non‐Aboriginal women. Using Poisson regression models, we estimated cervical cancer screening rate ratios (RR) among Aboriginal women in Quebec adjusting for age, income, education, marital status, and access to a primary care physician. The overall prevalence of NRS was 24% and did not differ across Aboriginal (26%) and non‐Aboriginal women (25%). In the fully adjusted model, the strongest predictors of NRS were non‐access to a primary care physician, lower income (1st quintile vs. 5th quintile), educational achievement of less than high school graduation (vs. university degree), and older age (50‐65 years vs. 21‐49 years). We conclude that there are no inequalities in screening between Aboriginal women living off‐reserve and non‐Aboriginal women in Quebec.

  • 1991‐2010 Canadian census mortality and cancer cohort: A linked cohort for the surveillance of occupational exposure and cancer - Video - Presentation
    Jill Hardt, Paul A. Demers (Cancer Care Ontario), M. Anne Harris (Ryerson)
    Abstract: There is a need for surveillance of cancers associated with potential risks in Canadian workplaces. However, cancer registries do not capture occupational information. The 1991 Canadian Census long‐form records, Canadian Mortality Database, Canadian Cancer Registry, and annual Tax Summary Files were linked by Statistics Canada, allowing examination of work‐related cancer risks in a population‐based cohort. The cohort followed from 1991 to 2010 represents a unique opportunity for surveillance of occupational cancer and the investigation of suspected associations between cancer and occupation. The linkage resulted in a cohort of more than 2.1 million Canadians over the age of 25 years who were employed in 1991. Many of the confirmed work‐cancer associations were observed. Mesothelioma is almost exclusively associated with asbestos exposure. Accordingly, construction workers, machinery assemblers and operators, and plumbers, occupations with known asbestos exposure, were at highest risk in the present study. Women in occupations requiring more education have been observed to have increased risks of breast cancer due to an association with reproductive factors, including higher age at first child‐birth. Accordingly, female administrators and managers and other office workers were at highest risk in this study. The present study shows that risks of cancer vary across occupations and industries due to direct job‐related exposures to hazardous agents and factors including sun exposure and shiftwork, and indirect factors such as alcohol consumption and physical activity.

Immigration

  • Impact of remittance behaviour on immigrant homeownership trajectories: An analysis of the LSIC in Canada from 2001 to 2005 - Video - Presentation
    Vincent Kuuire (Western)
    Abstract: Although homeownership is recognised as an important marker of immigrant integration in Canada, overall evidence suggests a declining trend in homeownership among immigrants in the last two decades. The factors scholars have focused on in their attempt to explain immigrant housing trajectories and overall homeownership trends tend to be dominated by immigrant characteristics and the circumstances prevailing in the housing market. This research extends this attempt at understanding immigrant housing trajectories by examining the influence of remittances. Using data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada we applied negative log–log regression modelling techniques to examine the influence of remittances on homeownership over time among recent immigrants in Canada. The results indicate that participation in remittance has negative consequences for homeownership over time. The findings make a case for the inclusion of immigrant transnational engagement in the attempt to explain immigrant integration. 

  • Does helping them benefit me? Examining the emotional cost and benefit of immigrants’ pecuniary remittance behaviour in Canada - Video - Presentation
    Jonathan Amoyaw, Teresa Abada (Western)
    Abstract: The existing literature has largely focused on how immigrants’ pre/post‐migration experiences affect their health in destination societies. Hence, little is known about the extent to which immigrants’ choice to maintain transnational ties to their family and friends abroad influences their health. This study makes a theoretical and empirical contribution to the sociology of health literature by examining how immigrants’ pecuniary remittance behaviour affects their emotional health using data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). Our logistic regression analyses demonstrate that sending remittances within the first six months of arrival predisposes immigrants to emotional health problems. In detailing the gender dynamics of our results, it becomes apparent that female immigrants who do not remit have higher odds of experiencing emotional health problems compared to their male counterparts. However, remitting after six months of arrival provides an “emotional advantage” for immigrants, but this advantage is greater for female immigrants compared to their male counterparts. This study underscores the importance of including transnational theory in the conceptual toolbox for explaining immigrants’ health transitions. From a policy perspective, our analysis re‐echoes the importance of facilitating the economic integration of immigrants, especially females, in order to enhance their ability to fulfill their remittance expectation since failure to do so has repercussions on their emotional wellbeing.

  • Does it matter if immigrants get jobs related to their education? - Video - Presentation
    Jason Dean (Sheridan)
    Abstract: A common finding throughout the Canadian immigration literature is that, despite having high levels of education, recent immigrants endure substantial earnings disadvantages upon arrival that persist throughout their working career. This paper investigates the role of ‘qualitative’ education‐job matches in explaining these poor labour market outcomes. Using a self‐reported match measure, available in the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID), the incidence and wage penalties associated with being mismatched are found to be higher among immigrants relative to Canadian‐born workers. As a consequence, mismatches on the part of immigrants are a significant mechanism behind the immigrant wage disadvantages reported throughout the literature. Successful matching is also found to significantly improve the return to pre‐migration education and work experience.

  • Canadian immigrants' time investment on children - Video - Presentation
    Allison Mascella, Mikal Skuterud, Ana Ferrer (Waterloo)
    Abstract: The time spent by parents on education and caregiving activities enriches the quality of the family environment. The quality of the family environment influences the process of child development and can predict productivity and academic achievement later in life. Besides health and work hours there is little work on time spent by immigrants and in particular, the time immigrant parents invest in their children. In this paper we use the General Social Survey to construct measures of time‐use in caregiving activities provided by parents for their children and in academic activity engaged in by students. From a sample of female parents surveyed during the school year whose youngest child in the house is no older than 14, we find that, conditional on  participation, female parents from Asia and South Central America spend more minutes per day on education activity with their children compared to native born Canadian female parents. We find that students with Asian mothers or fathers are more likely to participate in homework activity and, conditional on participation, spend more minutes per day on homework activity compared to students with Canadian born mothers or fathers.

  • Caring for the Kids: The characteristics and livelihoods of Canada’s paid child‐care givers - Video - Presentation
    Monica Boyd, Alice Hoe, Naomi Lightman (Toronto)
    Abstract: Despite on‐going debate over the care dearth, less attention is given to who provides paid child care in a highly feminized, lower waged and often unregulated settings. Who are these workers, what factors explain their employment in the caregiving sector, and what are their work profiles and wage levels? Using the 2011 National Household Survey, this presentation focuses on the child care paid work force, aged 20‐64, who are employed either as workers in child care centres or as babysitters in private households. Three core findings emerge from this research. First, consistent with the findings of qualitative studies, being female, visible minority and foreign born are among the most important predictors of working as babysitters (defined as NOC2011 code 6474: Babysitters, nannies and parents' helpers) and day care workers. Second, temporary migrants, especially from the Philippines, and white Canadian‐born women are the most likely to be employed as babysitters working in private households whereas other racialized groups are employed as day care workers. Third, substantial variations exist by race and geographical location in sites of employment, weeks and hours worked and in wages. However, regression analyses show that the higher earnings observed for some groups reflect their employment as full time workers and as wage earners (rather than self‐employed). Overall, child care givers, both in private households and in daycare industries are among the lowest paid workers in the Canadian labour force.

  • Temporary foreign workers and the Canadian labour market - Video - Presentation
    Christopher Worswick (Carleton), Pierre Brochu (Ottawa), Till Gross (Carleton)
    Abstract: The growth in the number of temporary foreign workers in Canada between 2000 and 2013 is well documented and represented a significant shift in focus towards temporary sources of foreign labour supply. The goal of this presentation is to better understand the economic implications of Temporary Foreign Worker (TFW) programs as well as understand the underlying reasons for the well documented abuses of the program (uncovered in 2014) by employers. To the best of our knowledge, no research has been carried out on the underlying reasons why an employer might prefer to hire a temporary foreign worker over a domestic worker at the going wage rate in the domestic labour market. As such, we have developed two competing models, a job search model with endogenous job destruction and an efficiency wage model. Our preliminary analyses of these models indicate that firms may choose not to hire a qualified domestic worker and then falsely claim to the government that no suitable domestic worker is available so as to be allowed to hire a TFW. In equilibrium, the firm is prepared to do this because the TFW will exert either higher effort and/or be less likely to leave the job than would a domestic worker. Given that temporary residents can be identified in both the Canadian Census Master files and the Labour Force Survey, we plan to test these theoretical predictions. We have already secured access to both sources of data and have completed setting up the data for estimation.

Income and Inequality

  • Going beyond food secure vs food insecure: An approach to examine the severity of household food insecurity - Video - Presentation
    Na Li, Andrée‐Anne Fafard St‐Germain (Toronto)
    Abstract: Many analyses examining health and socio‐demographic correlates of household food insecurity use a binary variable (i.e. food security vs food insecurity). This dichotomy implies that food insecure households represent a homogenous group; however, recent evidence suggests that the severity of the experience of food insecurity is an important marker of increased vulnerability. The aggregate number of affirmative responses to the 18‐item Household Food Security Survey Module can be used to create the food insecurity raw score (FIRS), ranging from 0 to 10 for households without children and 0 to 18 for households with children. Considering that the true degree of food security and insecurity is unknown for households at the extreme ends of the range, the Tobit model is used to account for the censoring of the dependent variable. The model estimates coefficients providing the linear effect of the predictors on the predicted value of FIRS. In this presentation, we will contrast the insights gained from an application of the Tobit model with the results of conventional analyses of food insecurity using a simple binary variable. The correlates of food insecurity have been extensively documented, but there are few studies exploring the full range of households’ experiences of food insecurity. A better understanding of the characteristics related to the severity of food insecurity is essential to identify policy interventions targeting some of the most vulnerable households in Canada.

  • A spatial analysis of income inequality among Aboriginal People in Canada - Video - Presentation
    Simona Bignami (Montréal), Adébiyi Germain Boco (Lethbridge), Virginie Boulet (Montréal)
    Abstract: An extensive literature has examined the widening gap between the rich and the poor in Canada. Little is known, however, about income inequality among Canada’s Aboriginal population. In this paper, we use data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples survey (APS) to map income inequality among First Nations people living off reserve, and to compare it to that observed in the general population. Specifically, we compute the Gini coefficient of household income by using total annual income reported in the APS adjusted for household size. A low Gini coefficient indicates a more equal distribution, with 0 corresponding to complete equality, while a high Gini coefficient indicates a more unequal distribution, with 1 corresponding to complete inequality (Kennedy et al., 1996). The calculated Gini coefficient allows dividing the Aboriginal population in quartiles of area income inequality at three levels: province, census metropolitan area, and census division. Corresponding values for the general population are obtained from Statistics Canada’s Canadian Socio‐economic Information Management (CANSIM) database. Results are presented in a map format, to better allow comparing different levels of income inequality among Aboriginal people and Canada’s general population.

  • How do income and socio‐economic status matter? Disentangling pathways of effect on child well-being and development - Video - Presentation
    Annie McEwen (Carleton)
    Abstract: A wide body of multidisciplinary research has established the correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) or income and children’s developmental and well‐being outcomes. However, understanding how household income and SES affect child outcomes is crucial for designing effective public policy that reduces the disadvantage of growing up with low‐SES and breaks the intergenerational transmission of poverty. A range of factors mediate the effects of low‐SES, and low‐income. Identifying these pathways of effect presents alternative policy approaches to income transfers for interventions to mitigate disadvantages. Additionally, there are clear policy implications of a differentiation between the effect of relatively fixed parental characteristics, such as educational level, and that of income, which is directly affected by government policy. This paper uses four cycles of data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (2000‐2008) to disentangle the different pathways of effect of income and parental background on child outcomes during three stages of childhood: preschool (age 0‐ 5), middle (age 8‐13), and high school (age 12‐16). Drawing on theories of family stress and family investment, the analysis uses structural equation modeling to examine measures of children’s activities, parenting behavior, and family functioning as potential mediators of income and SES. Taking a multidimensional approach to measuring child well‐being, age‐appropriate measures of socio‐emotional wellbeing, cognitive development, and behavior are used as outcomes. The paper discusses the implications for policy as well as lessons for future research, including the importance of multiple indicators of 'child outcomes' and differentiation between effects at different stages of childhood.

  • Tax‐free savings accounts: Who uses them and how? - Video - Presentation
    Adam M. Lavecchia, Michael Smart (Toronto)
    Abstract: The Tax‐Free Savings Account (TFSA), introduced in Canada in 2009, has been extremely popular. In 2013, Canadians held $118 billion in TFSA assets and annual contributions exceeded $40 billion. Recently, the annual contribution limit was increased from $5,000 to $10,000 per year, leading to a policy debate about the merits of the program. Arguments in favor of increasing the annual contribution limit appeal to the program's popularity among middle‐income families and claim that the account encourages new saving. The main argument against expansion of the TFSA is that the account disproportionately benefits wealthy families. Due to limited data availability on TFSAs, however, this debate has proceeded with very little evidence on the basic facts about average TFSA contribution behavior. This paper aims to fill the gap by presenting new evidence on TFSA owners using microdata from Survey of Financial Security (SFS). We explore the extent to which the TFSA is meeting two of its initial stated objectives: to encourage saving among those that are not well served by traditional tax deferred accounts, as well as to allow those constrained by annual limits to do more tax‐recognized saving. We find some support for both hypotheses. For example, 28 percent of families that do hold taxable assets but do not own a RRSP are TFSA owners. In contrast, 58 percent of families that hold both RRSP and taxable assets own a TFSA. We discuss the relevance of these facts for the current policy debate and in the context of potential policy reforms.

Labour Market

  • Moving through the crossroads: An approach to improving the employment prospects of people with disabilities - Video - Presentation
    Cameron Crawford (York)
    Abstract: For many years, people with disabilities have been about two‐thirds as likely as people without disabilities to be employed. The employment rate of some people with disabilities has persistently hovered at around one‐third the rate of non‐disabled people. Financial estimates of the cost of this problem in Canada differ considerably, but are on the order of many billions of dollars annually. This issue is situated at the crossroads of theories about disablement that sometimes converge, sometimes stand in opposition to one another but that often go in quite different directions in terms of policy and program implications. This research seeks to move through the theoretical crossroads by seeking out the general socio‐demographic and disability‐specific factors, that inhere in individuals and in their environments, that are most predictive of whether people will obtain ‘decent work’ after the onset of work‐limiting disability. An aim is to develop policy‐relevant conclusions that could help inform the design of programs to improve the employment prospects of people with disabilities with significant levels of disability who are not presently working. The research draws mainly from the Canadian Survey on Disability.

  • Caring for the Kids: The characteristics and livelihoods of Canada’s paid child‐care givers - Video Presentation
    Monica Boyd, Alice Hoe, Naomi Lightman (Toronto)
    Abstract: Despite on‐going debate over the care dearth, less attention is given to who provides paid child care in a highly feminized, lower waged and often unregulated settings. Who are these workers, what factors explain their employment in the caregiving sector, and what are their work profiles and wage levels? Using the 2011 National Household Survey, this presentation focuses on the child care paid work force, aged 20‐64, who are employed either as workers in child care centres or as babysitters in private households. Three core findings emerge from this research. First, consistent with the findings of qualitative studies, being female, visible minority and foreign born are among the most important predictors of working as babysitters (defined as NOC2011 code 6474: Babysitters, nannies and parents' helpers) and day care workers. Second, temporary migrants, especially from the Philippines, and white Canadian‐born women are the most likely to be employed as babysitters working in private households whereas other racialized groups are employed as day care workers. Third, substantial variations exist by race and geographical location in sites of employment, weeks and hours worked and in wages. However, regression analyses show that the higher earnings observed for some groups reflect their employment as full time workers and as wage earners (rather than self‐employed). Overall, child care givers, both in private households and in daycare industries are among the lowest paid workers in the Canadian labour force.

  • Diverging trends in the incidence of occupational and non‐occupational injury in Ontario, 2004‐2011 - Video - Presentation
    Cameron Mustard, Andrea Chambers, Jacob Etches, Selahadin Ibrahim (Institute for Work and Health)
    Abstract: This presentation summarizes an observational study of adults aged 15‐64 over the period 2004‐2011, estimating the incidence of occupational and non‐occupational injury in emergency department records, and separately, from survey responses to five waves of a national health interview survey. Over the observation period, the annual percent change (APC) in the incidence of work‐related injury was ‐5.9% in emergency department records and ‐7.4% among survey participants. In contrast, APC in the incidence of non‐occupational injury was ‐0.3% in emergency department records and 1.0% among survey participants. Among working‐age adults, the percent of all injuries attributed to work exposures declined from 20% in 2004 to 15.2% in 2011 in emergency department records and 27.7% (2001) to 16.9% (2010) among survey participants. Thus, among working‐age adults in Ontario, nearly all of the observed decline in injury incidence over the period 2004‐2011 is attributed to reductions in occupational injury.

  • Temporary foreign workers and the Canadian labour market - Video Presentation
    Christopher Worswick (Carleton), Pierre Brochu (Ottawa), Till Gross (Carleton)
    Abstract: The growth in the number of temporary foreign workers in Canada between 2000 and 2013 is well documented and represented a significant shift in focus towards temporary sources of foreign labour supply. The goal of this presentation is to better understand the economic implications of Temporary Foreign Worker (TFW) programs as well as understand the underlying reasons for the well documented abuses of the program (uncovered in 2014) by employers. To the best of our knowledge, no research has been carried out on the underlying reasons why an employer might prefer to hire a temporary foreign worker over a domestic worker at the going wage rate in the domestic labour market. As such, we have developed two competing models, a job search model with endogenous job destruction and an efficiency wage model. Our preliminary analyses of these models indicate that firms may choose not to hire a qualified domestic worker and then falsely claim to the government that no suitable domestic worker is available so as to be allowed to hire a TFW. In equilibrium, the firm is prepared to do this because the TFW will exert either higher effort and/or be less likely to leave the job than would a domestic worker. Given that temporary residents can be identified in both the Canadian Census Master files and the Labour Force Survey, we plan to test these theoretical predictions. We have already secured access to both sources of data and have completed setting up the data for estimation.

  • Does it matter if immigrants get jobs related to their education? - Video Presentation
    Jason Dean (Sheridan)
    Abstract: A common finding throughout the Canadian immigration literature is that, despite having high levels of education, recent immigrants endure substantial earnings disadvantages upon arrival that persist throughout their working career. This paper investigates the role of ‘qualitative’ education‐job matches in explaining these poor labour market outcomes. Using a self‐reported match measure, available in the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID), the incidence and wage penalties associated with being mismatched are found to be higher among immigrants relative to Canadian‐born workers. As a consequence, mismatches on the part of immigrants are a significant mechanism behind the immigrant wage disadvantages reported throughout the literature. Successful matching is also found to significantly improve the return to pre‐migration education and work experience.

Child Health and Development

  • Children's experiences of parental breakup: Evidence from the NLSCY - Video - Presentation
    Charles Jones (Toronto), Jing Shen (Lethbridge)
    Recent debates about social inequality have seen scholars across the ideological spectrum revive past arguments about family breakdown, a “flight from marriage” and the roles of social class, social capital and state support for child development. Elevated levels of union dissolution mean that children are at higher risk of experiencing the separation of their parents, an event still seen as potentially harmful, despite reforms made to family law. We report research on recent birth cohorts of Canadian children born to a co‐resident couple. Analysis of successive cohorts of 0‐1 year olds from all eight data sweeps of Canada’s National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth shows that children experience greater risk of parental separation in Quebec and that is linked with its higher prevalence of children born to “conjoints de fait” (common law unions) the historical context being a collapse of Catholicism and revisions of the Civil Code in recent decades. Proportional hazards regressions and other techniques show that children’s higher risk of experiencing parental separation is also correlated with having parents with no more than high school graduation, being born to mothers younger than their mid‐twenties, having fewer siblings, living in lower income households that rent rather than own, and to being of Aboriginal or African Canadian origin while lower risk of parental separation goes with Asian ancestral origin and with having at least some religious identification. Children whose reporting parent scored higher on the CES‐D scale of depression were at greater risk of subsequent parental breakup. 

  • How do income and socio‐economic status matter? Disentangling pathways of effect on child well-being and development - Video Presentation
    Annie McEwen (Carleton)
    Abstract: A wide body of multidisciplinary research has established the correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) or income and children’s developmental and well‐being outcomes. However, understanding how household income and SES affect child outcomes is crucial for designing effective public policy that reduces the disadvantage of growing up with low‐SES and breaks the intergenerational transmission of poverty. A range of factors mediate the effects of low‐SES, and low‐income. Identifying these pathways of effect presents alternative policy approaches to income transfers for interventions to mitigate disadvantages. Additionally, there are clear policy implications of a differentiation between the effect of relatively fixed parental characteristics, such as educational level, and that of income, which is directly affected by government policy. This paper uses four cycles of data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (2000‐2008) to disentangle the different pathways of effect of income and parental background on child outcomes during three stages of childhood: preschool (age 0‐ 5), middle (age 8‐13), and high school (age 12‐16). Drawing on theories of family stress and family investment, the analysis uses structural equation modeling to examine measures of children’s activities, parenting behavior, and family functioning as potential mediators of income and SES. Taking a multidimensional approach to measuring child well‐being, age‐appropriate measures of socio‐emotional wellbeing, cognitive development, and behavior are used as outcomes. The paper discusses the implications for policy as well as lessons for future research, including the importance of multiple indicators of 'child outcomes' and differentiation between effects at different stages of childhood.

  • Canadian immigrants' time investment on children - Video Presentation
    Allison Mascella, Mikal Skuterud, Ana Ferrer (Waterloo)
    Abstract: The time spent by parents on education and caregiving activities enriches the quality of the family environment. The quality of the family environment influences the process of child development and can predict productivity and academic achievement later in life. Besides health and work hours there is little work on time spent by immigrants and in particular, the time immigrant parents invest in their children. In this paper we use the General Social Survey to construct measures of time‐use in caregiving activities provided by parents for their children and in academic activity engaged in by students. From a sample of female parents surveyed during the school year whose youngest child in the house is no older than 14, we find that, conditional on  participation, female parents from Asia and South Central America spend more minutes per day on education activity with their children compared to native born Canadian female parents. We find that students with Asian mothers or fathers are more likely to participate in homework activity and, conditional on participation, spend more minutes per day on homework activity compared to students with Canadian born mothers or fathers.

Ontario Pilot Project

  • How have the needs of Ontario income assistance recipients changed in the past decade? - Video - Presentation
    Evelyn L. Forget, R. Ahmed, T. Ahmed, P. Das (Manitoba)
    Abstract: We examine Ontario Works data to answer a series of questions about the changing needs of low‐income families in Ontario: What proportion of the caseload is represented by different family types, and how have the proportions changed over time? How much income do families receive from sources other than Ontario works, and has this changed over time? What is the mean/median length of Ontario Works participation, and have these been changing in recent years?

  • Duration of assistance and the principle of categorical eligibility in Ontario's social assistance System - Video - Presentation
    Jennifer Mussell (York)
    Abstract: Although it has undergone many transformations, in Ontario, last‐resort income assistance as a form of poverty relief has always been allotted based on the principle of categorical eligibility. This means that on the basis of a series of personal characteristics, the needy are divided into two groups: the long‐term dependent and the short‐term dependent. Currently, two main programs provide last resort income assistance to the poor: Ontario Works and the Ontario Disability Support Program. The former, intended for the short‐term dependent, provides for those deemed ‘employable’, while the latter provides for those requiring long‐term assistance. The Ontario Works program requires that recipients participate in Employment Assistance activities that are intended to expedite their transition back into the workforce. Using the Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services social assistance data, this research examines whether Ontario Works is truly being used for short term relief‐ that is, whether participants in the program are likely to exit quickly, and whether they are likely to return to the program after exiting. The hypothesis of this study is that participants in marginalized social locations, such as women, single parents, immigrants to Canada, and indigenous people, are more likely to remain in the program for long durations and to re‐enter the program if they have exited. A test of this hypothesis will reveal whether there is a need for re‐examination of the categories of eligibility for Ontario Works and Ontario Disability Support, and indeed, whether the principle of categorical eligibility is useful in Ontario’s poverty relief system at all.

  • Ontario social assistance microdata - Presentation
    Elizabeth Paterno (Ministry of Community and Social Services, Government of Ontario)
    Ontario’s social assistance programs provide income and employment support to single adults and families who are in financial need. Ontario Works provides financial and employment assistance to help people move towards paid employment and independence, while the Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP) provides financial assistance and employment support to enable people with disabilities and their families to live as independently as possible in their communities. The Ontario social assistance micro-data set consists of de-identified client-level data collected and used for the administration of these two programs. The presentation will provide an overview of this micro-data set that is available for research through a pilot project that the Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services and Statistics Canada are jointly conducting.

Social Trends

  • Marital status life course transitions and well-being in Canada - Video Presentation
    Susan A. McDaniel, Adébiyi Germain Boco, Sara Zella (Lethbridge)
    Abstract: We ask here whether being continuously married, compared with the experience of multiple marital statuses over the life course, is related to physical and mental health as Canadians age from mid to later life. Specifically, this study examines the longitudinal effect of time in various marital statuses and numbers of marital status transitions on physical and mental well-being. We rely for the analysis on sixteen years of data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey. The research is funded by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada grant, Inequality in Mid-Life, Looking Toward the Later Years: A Canada/U.S. Longitudinal Study (Grant no. 410-2010-0814, McDaniel as Principal Investigator). We analyze a sample of individuals aged 45+ having complete data in all nine cycles of the survey. We first use sequence analysis (SA) through optimal matching to visualize marital trajectories over the 1994/95 to 2010/11 period. Then, we employ a group-based trajectory modelling approach to aggregate respondents with similar trajectories of change in marital status. Five main patterns of marital trajectories are identified: stably married, divorced/separated/widowed, and never married, and clusters of respondents who experienced marital status transitions including married to divorced/separated/widowed, and never married to married. Finally, we use generalized estimating equations (GEE) to assess associations between groups and self-rated health as well as psychological distress. Models were adjusted for individuals’ socio-economic and demographic characteristics. In this study, we expect to reveal a complex pattern of marital history effects on changes in physical and mental well-being.


  • The propensity to live alone in Canada: A longitudinal perspective - Video - Presentation
    Jianye Liu (Lakehead), Roderic Beaujot, Zenaida Ravanera (Western)
    Abstract: The number of unattached individuals is increasing across developed countries. In Canada, the proportion of one person household is 27.6% in 2011, which surpasses that of couple household with children (26.5%). The aim of this study is to examine the effects of individual and community factors on the propensity to live in an unattached status in Canada by using a survival model on data gathered through panel 2 to panel 5 of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and the Census in 1996, 2001 and 2006. The individual information is from SLID and the community factors are from the censuses, which are linked together by the census division numbers in both SLID and Census data. The study selects those aged 35 to 54 and living unattached in the first wave of each panel, and examines what individual and community factors contribute to the change in their status in the following waves. We find that, in general, the propensity to live alone increases with time, age, and duration of being unattached. Moreover those never married are more likely to live alone in comparison to those previously partnered. As for community factors, the better the labor market situation, the lower the propensity to live alone. Furthermore, women are more likely to live alone than men; and immigrant status, health status and region have significant effects on men only. A policy implication of this study is that more social services are needed for unattached men and women at mid‐life.

Education

  • Post‐schooling outcomes of Canadian graduates: A tax data linkage approach - Video - Presentation
    Ross Finnie (Ottawa)
    Abstract: The Education Policy Research Initiative (EPRI) is collaborating with Statistics Canada to undertake a pilot project to provide learning and labour market information in a new way by linking administrative data on students held by PSE institutions with tax files held by Statistics Canada. The extended pilot project, which is being financed by Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC), involves twelve colleges and universities of different types from a number of regions across the country. The project has three main objectives: 1. To provide valuable information on student’s post‐schooling outcomes of a type not currently available. To do this we will: Track students’ earnings on a year by year basis following graduation; Identify these outcomes separately for each cohort of graduates; Provide comparisons for graduates from different programs of study; Compare outcomes along a range of other student and program characteristics; Compare those who do best in the labour market, those in the middle, and those who do least well. 2. To create a research platform that will allow labour market outcomes to be related in more detail to a range of student characteristics and PSE experiences, thus helping us better understand the observed outcomes. 3. To demonstrate the feasibility of a larger scale tax linkage project, possibly covering as many as all graduates from all Canadian PSE institutions based on PSE administrative data held at Statistics Canada.

  • The age of reproduction: The effect of university tuition fees on enrolment in Quebec and Ontario, 1946–2011 - Video - Presentation
    Nicolas Bastien, Pierre Doray, Benoît Laplante (UQAM)
    Abstract: The recent rise of tuition fees in many Western countries – among them England, the United States and Canada – is renewing interest for the effect of tuition fees on the access to postsecondary education. In this paper, we investigate whether increasing tuition fees reduces overall access to university in Quebec and Ontario, but additionally we try to answer the more complex question of whether the effect of tuition fees on enrolment is the same across social groups. We model the effect of tuitions fees on university access using the Cox’s relative risk model on individual biographical data from four cycles of the General Social Survey and aggregate data on Quebec and Ontario tuition fees spanning from 1946 to 2009. Our approach makes use of the non‐monotonic variation of tuition fees over the period to disentangle the effect of tuition fees on enrolment from the general growth in enrolment that occurred over the period. It also allows us to test the equality of the effect of tuitions fees across social origin, language and immigration status and across time of life. We find that tuition fees decrease the hazard of enrolment when parents do not have any university education, but increase it when at least one parent has a university diploma. Tuition fee are also found to reduce the hazard of enrolment for French‐speaking in Quebec and Ontario. Additionally, we find that the negative effect of raising tuition fees increases with age in all social origin and sociolinguistic groups considered. Our results suggest that tuition fees are a barrier to intergenerational mobility and increasing them may simply strengthen social reproduction.

  • Confidence and cognition: Tracking the effects of skill development on post‐secondary school choice and labour market outcomes - Video - Presentation
    M. J. Kottelenberg (Huron University College), S. F. Lehrer (Queen’s, NBER)
    Abstract: Using the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS‐A) we estimate a Roy model with a two dimensional latent factor structure to consider how both cognitive and non‐cognitive skills influence endogenous schooling decisions and subsequent labour market outcomes in Canada. Our estimates indicate that non‐cognitive skills play a role in determining income at age 25 that is on par with that of cognitive skills. Our analysis demonstrates that it is crucial to account for the dynamics in decision making since this demonstrates that the effect of cognitive skills on adult incomes arises by one increasing the likelihood of obtaining further education. Conditioning on the choice to complete a university degree, cognitive skills are found to play no additional role in determining earnings at age 25. In contrast, non‐cognitive skills not only indirectly influence adult income through the channel of educational choice, but they are directly rewarded in the labour market. Last, evidence from policy simulations suggest that equal attention should be given to policies that cultivate different dimensions of non‐cognitive skills as those that focus solely on cognitive skills.

  • Does it matter if immigrants get jobs related to their education? - Video Presentation
    Jason Dean (Sheridan)
    Abstract: A common finding throughout the Canadian immigration literature is that, despite having high levels of education, recent immigrants endure substantial earnings disadvantages upon arrival that persist throughout their working career. This paper investigates the role of ‘qualitative’ education‐job matches in explaining these poor labour market outcomes. Using a self‐reported match measure, available in the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID), the incidence and wage penalties associated with being mismatched are found to be higher among immigrants relative to Canadian‐born workers. As a consequence, mismatches on the part of immigrants are a significant mechanism behind the immigrant wage disadvantages reported throughout the literature. Successful matching is also found to significantly improve the return to pre‐migration education and work experience.

Aboriginal

  • A spatial analysis of income inequality among Aboriginal People in Canada - Video Presentation
    Simona Bignami (Montréal), Adébiyi Germain Boco (Lethbridge), Virginie Boulet (Montréal)
    Abstract: An extensive literature has examined the widening gap between the rich and the poor in Canada. Little is known, however, about income inequality among Canada’s Aboriginal population. In this paper, we use data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples survey (APS) to map income inequality among First Nations people living off reserve, and to compare it to that observed in the general population. Specifically, we compute the Gini coefficient of household income by using total annual income reported in the APS adjusted for household size. A low Gini coefficient indicates a more equal distribution, with 0 corresponding to complete equality, while a high Gini coefficient indicates a more unequal distribution, with 1 corresponding to complete inequality (Kennedy et al., 1996). The calculated Gini coefficient allows dividing the Aboriginal population in quartiles of area income inequality at three levels: province, census metropolitan area, and census division. Corresponding values for the general population are obtained from Statistics Canada’s Canadian Socio‐economic Information Management (CANSIM) database. Results are presented in a map format, to better allow comparing different levels of income inequality among Aboriginal people and Canada’s general population.

  • Intergenerational effects of residential schooling on health: Evidence from the Aboriginal Peoples - Video - Presentation
    Piotr Wilk (Western), Martin Cooke (Waterloo)
    Abstract: The final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada in June 2015 brought much needed attention to the role of residential schooling in the ongoing disparities between Indigenous and non‐Indigenous Canadians. In addition to the stories collected by the Commission, previous academic research has provided some evidence of the effects of residential schooling on mental health and suicidality (Elias, Migone et al, 2012; Gone, 2013), and on childhood obesity (Cooke et al. 2013). However, there has been no attempt to quantitatively examine the intergenerational effects of residential school experience on other health outcomes for which First Nations, Inuit and Métis are at higher risk, including adult diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stress, as well as on health‐related behaviours such as drinking and smoking. Using the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey and a structural equation modelling (SEM) framework, we estimate the direct effects of personal residential school attendance, as well as the indirect effects of the attendance of previous generations’ attendance, on these health outcomes for off‐reserve Indigenous adults aged 30 and older. As expected, we find that there is significant clustering of residential school attendance within families. Individual and intergenerational school attendance is significantly related to several outcomes, including smoking and alcohol use. These results are potentially important for clinicians and others who work with Indigenous people, as well as for understanding the continuing impact of residential schooling.

Statistics Canada Workshop

  • Ontario social assistance microdata - Presentation
    Elizabeth Paterno (Ministry of Community and Social Services, Government of Ontario)
    Ontario’s social assistance programs provide income and employment support to single adults and families who are in financial need. Ontario Works provides financial and employment assistance to help people move towards paid employment and independence, while the Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP) provides financial assistance and employment support to enable people with disabilities and their families to live as independently as possible in their communities. The Ontario social assistance micro-data set consists of de-identified client-level data collected and used for the administration of these two programs. The presentation will provide an overview of this micro-data set that is available for research through a pilot project that the Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services and Statistics Canada are jointly conducting.

  • The Longitudinal Administrative Database (LAD) - Presentation
    Paul Roberts (Income Statistics Division, Statistics Canada)
    The Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD) is a longitudinal file designed as a research tool on income and demographics. It comprises a 20% sample of the annual T1 Family and the Longitudinal Immigration Data Base.

  • Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA) - Presentation
    Cathy Oikawa (Income Statistics Division, Statistics Canada)
    The Longitudinal and International Study of Adults aims to improve our understanding of what is happening in the lives of Canadians so we can see what services they require, and what kinds of information they need to support their decision making about today and the future. LISA results could shed light on: a) Long-term benefits of postsecondary education; b) Transience in the workplace and across the labour force; c) Families coping with complex issues such as job loss and poor health and d) Standards of living for retirees and changes that may occur over time.

  •  Expanding data potential with the social data linkage environment - English presentation - French presentation
    Cathy Trainor (Special Surveys Division, Statistics Canada)
    While Statistics Canada has a long history of record linkage, the creation of linked population data sets for social analysis in the Social Data Linkage Environment (SDLE) is conducted in a new and innovative way. This presentation will explain the SDLE, what it can do for you and how it can fill important data gaps.

  • Access to justice and crime data - English presentation - French presentation
    Marta Burcycka (Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada)
    The aim of the presentation to the CRDCN workshop group is to provide an overview of data currently available in the RDC and RTRAs pilot, along with information on plans for future additions of data. The presentation will also discuss the research potentials of the data and provide some examples of the kinds of analyses these data could be used for as well as outline analytical approaches required to ensure that the confidential elements of the data are not disclosed.